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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 – (APS-3), is defined as the coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with other non-ovarian autoimmune diseases without primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally the definition of APS-3 also includes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) coexistence with autoimmune thyroiditis. The main goal of that study is to assess the prevalence of APS-3 defined as coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with POI in population of 46 XX karyotype women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The second goal is to investigate hormonal profile and insulin sensitivity in women with POI and subgroups of women with APS-3 – POI/APS-3(+) and without APS 3 – POI/APS-3(-). testosterone.
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The levels of biochemical parameters in seminal (NAG and fructose) and blood (FSH, LH, testosterone, and PRL) plasma samples correlate with the histologic diagnosis in azoospermic patients, providing potential benefits in predicting the pathologic diagnosis of male infertility. testosterone.
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Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on the link between androgens and cardiovascular disease and the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women has been conducted. The few existing studies on cardiovascular outcomes in postmenopausal women indicate no effect or a deleterious effect of increasing androgens and increased cardiovascular risk. However, there is evidence of a favorable effect of androgens on surrogate cardiovascular markers in postmenopausal women, such as high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, body fat mass and triglycerides. Further studies are therefore needed to clarify the impact of therapy with androgens on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. The cardiovascular effect of testosterone or methyltestosterone with or without concomitant estrogens needs to be elucidated. testosterone.
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Previous studies using in vivo bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and alkylphenol (AP)-containing surfactants were detected in fractions of extracts that induced the estrogenic biomarker, vitellogenin in fish exposed to surface water extracts from the United States. However, when the compounds were evaluated individually using in vivo estrogenic assays or in vitro estrogen receptor assays, estrogenic activity was not observed. Since APs have been shown to alter activity and content of cytochrome P450s (CYP) which convert diuron to potential estrogenic metabolites, the hepatic biotransformation of diuron was measured with and without a 7day pretreatment of p-Octylphenol (OP) and p-Nonylphenol (NP) at low (OP 13ng/L+NP 91ng/L), and high concentrations (OP 65ng/L+NP 455ng/L) in juvenile male Nile tilapia (Oreochromus niloticus). Pre-treatment with the OP/NP (AP) mixture caused elevated levels of NADPH-catalyzed formation of 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU) but not 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU). Fish were also treated with nominal concentrations of low (40ng/L) and high (200ng/L) diuron and each of its three degradates/metabolites: DCPMU, DCPU and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Additional treatments were conducted with APs and Diuron as a mixture at the low concentrations which mimicked concentrations observed in surface waters. Hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA was induced by exposure to the high concentrations of Diuron, as well as DCPMU and DCPU in both concentrations. Brain cytochrome P450 aromatase activity was generally diminished by diuron, its metabolites, and the AP/diuron mixtures. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) levels were also reduced by DCPMU and DCA in the lower concentrations, but not by higher concentrations. While the AP mixture reduced 17βHSD, the AP/diuron mixture induced testosterone (T) biosynthesis at the single concentration tested. Although CYP3A expression was induced by all diuron metabolites, it was unchanged by the AP mixture. These data indicate that mixtures of AP and diuron enhanced the formation of the metabolite (DCPMU) which induced vitellogenin, and reduced T biosynthetic enzymes (17βHSD inhibition). Overall, these data showed that APs may have induced the biotransformation of diuron to at least one metabolite, that may disrupt androgen biosynthesis and potentially alter steroid feedback pathways in the central nervous system. testosterone.
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Forty-four patients with ventricular arrhythmias [ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF)] (mean age, 55.6 ± 1.8 years; 37 men, 7 women) were included in the study. The patients were evaluated after mean period of 21.2 ± 0.8 months from VT-VF. Basal hormone levels, including serum free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), TSH, ACTH, prolactin, FSH, LH, total testosterone, estradiol, IGF-1, and cortisol levels were measured in all patients. To assess (GH)-insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, glucagon stimulation test was performed and 1 µg ACTH stimulation test was used for assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. testosterone.
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AR-CAG repeats stretch was significantly longer in IOM (p<0.05), CryM (p<0.05) and YM (p<0.001) than FM. When the AR-CAG repeat tracts were subdivided in three subgroups according to the length of CAG repeats tract assessed in fertile subjects (the one with the middle (n 19-21) belonging to the 25 and 75 % inter-quartile, the ends belonging to the 75 % inter-quartile, respectively), there was a statistically significant difference of distribution of AR-CAG tract length among fertile and different groups of infertile men (p=<0.0005; chi-square test). Moreover, the subgroup of AR-CAG repeat stretch with 22-28 triplets was associated with lower levels of InhB both in idiopathic oligozoospermic (Scheffe, Bonferroni and Dunett tests p=<0.01) and azoospermic men (Scheffe, Bonferroni and Dunett test p=<0.05), while, when FM and men with idiopathic infertility were gathered in a single group, both the subgroup of AR- CAG tract with 15-18 repeats and the one with 22-28 repeats are associated with lower testis volume, reduced sperm count and serum InhB levels. testosterone.
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